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How to Pronounce the "ed" at the end of regular verbs

The prnounciation of words ending in "ed" depends on the final consonant sound. There are three ways to pronounce "ed" at the end of a work in English.


If the final sound the words is a voiced consonant or vowel, excpet /d/, then "ed" is pronounced /d/


  • /iː/
  • /ɪ/: enjoyed, studied
  • /e/
  • /æ/
  • /ɜː/
  • /ə/: discovered,
  • /ʌ/
  • /ɑː/
  • /ɒ/
  • /ɔː/
  • /uː/: continued
  • /ʊ/
  • /eɪ/: played
  • /aɪ/: tried
  • /ɔɪ/
  • /əʊ/: followed
  • /aʊ/
  • /ɪə/
  • /eə/
  • /ʊə/

voiced consonant

  • /b/: robbed, rubbed,
  • /g/:
  • /v/: lived, saved, loved,
  • /z/: promised, used, amazed, closed,
  • /ð/:
  • /ʒ/:
  • /r/
  • /dʒ/: damaged,
  • /m/: claimed, climbed,
  • /n/: rained, cleaned, opened,
  • /ŋ/
  • /l/: failed, called, travelled,
  • /j/:


If the last sound of the words ends in a voiceless consonant, excpet /t/, then "ed" is pronounced /t/

voiceless consonant

  • /p/: helped, jumped
  • /k/: cooked, asked, looked, worked, talked, parked,
  • /f/: sniffed, laughed,
  • /s/: missed, kissed, danced, fixed
  • /θ/
  • /ʃ/: washed,
  • /h/
  • /tʃ/: watched, reached,


If the last sound of the words ends in /d/ or /t/, then "ed" is pronounced /id/

  • /d/: decided, needed, avoided, folded
  • /t/: started, visited, invited, rented, counted, wanted, waited,